Havana Cuba Business Travel Culture and Politics

Havana Cuba News

Cuba Politics News

Posted March 28, 2006 by publisher in Cuban History

Email this article | Print this article | Search Havana Journal        

http://timesonline.co.uk

William Morgan was an American who became a leader in Fidel Castro’s army — only to be executed as a traitor after the revolution. More than 40 years on, his widow is fighting to clear his name. By Christopher Goodwin

Nowhere could seem further from the balmy subtropics of Havana, Cuba, than the bleak, wintry snowscapes of Toledo, Ohio. But every day for the last 45 years, the 69-year-old Toledo housewife and grandmother Olga Goodwin has forced herself to think about a dusty corner in Havana’s Colon cemetery. There, in an unmarked grave, lies the body of William Alexander Morgan, Olga’s first husband, an American who fought alongside Fidel Castro in the Cuban revolution but was later executed as a traitor by the Cuban dictator.

“William died without a country,” says Olga, a small, nervous but passionate Cuban woman whose English is still very fractured. Sitting in her lawyer’s office in Toledo, Olga Goodwin (no relation to the writer) fights back tears as she describes her quixotic fight to have her ex-husband’s remains returned to the United States and to have his US citizenship restored. Morgan was stripped of his citizenship for fighting in Castro’s army. “He was American but he wanted freedom for my country,” says Olga, who escaped to the US in 1980 after spending 12 years in Cuban jails, and has since remarried. “I cannot find peace until William can come home to his country.”

The story of the mysterious life and death of William Morgan is one of the last untold stories of the Cuban revolution. It has been pieced together by The Sunday Times from interviews with his widow and others, from contemporary accounts, and from previously classified CIA, FBI and State Department documents. It is the improbable story of how a high-school dropout from Ohio, an ex-con, a ranch hand, gambling enforcer, mafia- gunrunner and circus fire-eater, became one of the top leaders in Castro’s revolutionary army, only to be executed as a traitor after the revolution.

Olga Goodwin, then Olga Maria Rodriguez Farinas, insists she fell in love with Morgan before she even met him in April 1958, in a rebel encampment in the Escambray mountains of central Cuba. Olga, then a romantic young revolutionary, had heard stories about the young “Comandante Yanqui”. Morgan and Olga were both fighting against the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista with the Segundo Frente – the Second National Front of the Escambray – which eventually numbered some 2,500 fighters, mainly poor farmers. Castro, and the legendary Argentinian Ernesto “Che” Guevara, led the largest rebel group, the 26th of July Movement, in the southern Sierra Maestra mountains.

“Here was a guy from the United States fighting for my freedom,” recalls Olga. “Inside of me, this was the reason I feel in love. When I saw him, my heart went boom, boom, boom.”

Olga, then 22, pretty and blonde, was from the city of Santa Clara, the second of six children. In the months after they met, she and Morgan, then 30, who spoke little Spanish, snatched brief moments together. Even today, though, it’s unclear how much the bearded, blue-eyed Morgan told the love-struck Cuban girl (Olga and Morgan married in November 1958).

William Alexander Morgan, born in Cleveland, Ohio, on April 19, 1928, was the son of a financial officer for Toledo Edison, the electric-power company. A terrible student, he was kicked out of four high schools. In 1946 he joined the army, and a year later was transferred to Japan, but went Awol after marrying a Japanese nightclub hostess (they were divorced within a year). Morgan was sentenced to three months’ hard labour but escaped. When he was recaptured, he was given five years in a military prison in California.

On his release, Morgan returned to Toledo, and worked for a while as a debt collector for a well-known Toledo underworld gambling boss. In the middle of the 1950s, Morgan joined a circus in Florida, working as a fire-eater. There he met his second wife, Ellen May Bethel, a snake charmer. They had two children, but were divorced in 1958 on the grounds of Morgan’s desertion. Around 1956, Morgan became involved in gunrunning in Florida, FBI reports indicate, buying guns in the southern US from the Cleveland mob boss Dominick Bartone, a convicted gunrunner, and shipping them to the anti-Batista rebels in Cuba.

Morgan went to Cuba around the end of 1957. He wanted to fight against Batista because one of his closest friends, Jack Turner, also a gunrunner, had been executed by Batista’s forces in 1957. By March 1958, Morgan had found his way into the Escambray mountains. Although some guerrillas mistrusted this “gringo” and thought he might be a CIA?plant, he won respect for his courage in battle. Today, many people forget that the rebels fighting Batista were not a single, cohesive army, but a loose federation, with widely divergent political views. The Second Front, led by 25-year-old Eloy Gutierrez Menoyo, was avowedly anti-communist. There were communists fighting against Batista, such as “Che” Guevara, and many of those fighting with him and Castro in the 26th of July Movement, but at that stage, most historians believe, even Castro was not a convinced communist.

In the summer of 1958, Guevara and some 200 fighters from the 26th of July Movement appeared in the Escambray intending to take control of the Second Front. But Morgan stood up to Guevara and his men, and sent them packing.

As the revolution against Batista gathered pace in 1958, Morgan was promoted to comandante, or major, the highest rank in the revolutionary army, bestowed on only one other foreigner: Guevara. Morgan also became second in command of the Second Front under Menoyo. On December 22, 1958, Morgan led his troops as they laid seige to the large industrial city of Cienfuegos, taking it with ease, when news came through on January 1, 1959, that Batista had fled Cuba. Castro, then 33, soon became prime minister. Guevara and Morgan clashed again when Guevara tried to have some of Morgan’s officers stripped of their rank. “It got real ugly,” Menoyo said. “Morgan and Che were about to fight. I was going to join in. We had our hands on our guns.”

Morgan was popular in Havana, provoking cheers of “Morgan, Morgan” whenever he appeared in the streets, but his popularity did not translate to power. Most of the Second Front leaders, including Morgan and Menoyo, found themselves excluded from the positions they had expected in the new government. Guevara, however, was appointed head of Cuba’s national bank, and most of the other top jobs were taken by leaders of the 26th of July Movement.

“After the revolution, I took my uniform off right away,” says Olga. “I put it in the garbage. I thought we would have peace. I thought every four years we would have elections. We would have hospitals, farms, schools, roads. I just wanted a quiet life, with William, with our daughter, later. But we never had peace. We could never be alone. We never had time for ourselves.”

In the murky world of post-revolutionary Cuban politics, of plots and counterplots, it was unclear just whose side Morgan was on.

In early April 1959, a “secret” FBI report concluded that disgruntled Second Front leaders, including Menoyo and Morgan, were forming a secret opposition group in Havana, and that $6m had been contributed to overthrow Castro by wealthy Cuban exiles, including the former dictator Batista. FBI reports also disclosed that Morgan had secretly flown to Miami and had met Dominick Bartone, his old friend and a convicted mafia gunrunner, and Augusto Ferrando, the consul general for the Dominican Republic, to discuss a counter-revolutionary plot against Castro. The FBI informant Manuel Benitez, a chief of the Cuban national police before the revolution, said Morgan had been paid $150,000 for his co-operation.

On July 27, 1959, Morgan flew into Miami again with Olga and her sister Coralia. Over the next few days, the FBI kept Morgan under close surveillance, discovering, among other things, that Morgan and Olga were breezing around in a new blue Cadillac sedan, which had been rented by Bartone. On July 30, 1959, the FBI brought Morgan in for an interview. He told the FBI that around 4,000 men from the Second Front would follow Menoyo and himself, “should they issue an order”, and that “the Second Front was the nearest thing to a counter-revolutionary group in Cuba”. Morgan claimed to have talked to Castro before coming to Miami and spoke admiringly of him. He said he could have assassinated Castro on that occasion, as he was armed and Castro was not. Morgan also told the FBI he had heard there might be an invasion of Cuba from Cuban exiles in the Dominican Republic in mid-August 1959.

Barely a week later, it became clear that much of what he had told the FBI was true, though not his own role. There were advanced plans for a counter-revolution against Castro, financed by the Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo and wealthy anti-Castro Cuban exiles. But the truth came with an astonishing sting in its tail.

On the evening of the FBI’s interview with Morgan, Olga and her sister flew back to Havana. Morgan then sailed from Florida to Cuba in a boat loaded with guns and ammunition. Manuel Benitez told the FBI that the guns, worth more than $500,000, had been sold to Morgan by Bartone, and paid for by Augusto Ferrando. But the FBI didn’t learn of this until around August 14. By then, events in Cuba had taken an amazing turn.

On the night of August 6, Morgan and Menoyo called the counter-revolutionary plotters to a meeting at Morgan’s house. The plotters thought they were about to launch a coup against Castro. Instead, Morgan and Menoyo had them arrested. Then, in an amazing coup de théâtre, Castro strolled in. “Any orders, Mr President?” Castro asked, mocking the stunned Arturo Hernandez Tellaheche, an ex-senator who had expected to lead a new post-Castro government. Castro went round asking each of them: “So, what were you going to be minister of?”

Castro, Morgan and Menoyo then flew to the southern coastal town of Trinidad, where the counter-revolutionary invasion was to land. The Cuban media deliberately created confusion by suggesting that Morgan was a traitor. Morgan began broadcasting to the counter-revolutionary forces waiting in the Dominican Republic, telling them that anti-Castro forces “were advancing”. The following night, a C-46 transport plane arrived from the Dominican Republic. Castro’s troops, pretending to be rebels and shouting “Death to Castro!”, helped unload the large cargo of guns and ammunition before arresting those who had flown in. With Morgan’s help, Castro had foiled the most serious plot against his new government. Over the next few days, more than 1,500 people suspected of supporting the plot were arrested, and many were later executed.

On August 14, Castro went on TV, praising Morgan and Menoyo for their part in double-crossing the Trujillo plotters. Even today, though, it is not clear if Castro knew about the plot from its inception, or if he had learnt of it later and forced Morgan to betray it. But Trujillo, Bartone and the other plotters were infuriated at being double-crossed. Within weeks, Trujillo had offered a $500,000 bounty for Morgan’s death. Olga recalls two attempts on their lives, the first on September 3, when a car drove by their house, spraying it with bullets. And later that month, the US?State Department announced that Morgan had been stripped of his ?citizenship for fighting in a foreign government’s army. Morgan denied he had ever been a member of the Cuban armed forces, saying he only been a member of the rebel army, and also insisted that he had never accepted Cuban citizenship.

Despite lauding Morgan, Castro had evidently lost his trust in him. Rather than winning a position in the new government, in early 1960, Morgan was given money to start, of all things, a frog farm. During this time, Morgan and Olga had their second daughter. “Major Morgan still wears a Cuban major’s uniform and totes a gold-plated .38 automatic,” wrote a reporter from the Toledo Blade newspaper, who interviewed?Morgan “beside a sun-scorched frog tank”. “He rides in a blue Oldsmobile hardtop, outfitted with three radio telephones, two sub-machine-guns and a glove compartment full of hand grenades. The trappings do not disguise the fact that Major Morgan has been relegated to a civil servant’s job of minor consequence. ‘Cuban frog’s legs are tops,’ said Morgan, trying to make the best of things. ‘We’re also supplying guppies.’”

Olga says that over the following months, Morgan became increasingly infuriated by the anti-democratic direction Cuba was taking. Morgan started using the frog farm’s trucks to take arms to anti-Castro guerrillas in the Escambray mountains. But on October 17, 1960, Morgan, Olga, and Morgan’s chief aide, Jesus Carreras, were arrested. Morgan and Carreras were taken to La Cabaña prison; Olga was put under house arrest, though she escaped with -their daughters by drugging her guards and found asylum in the Brazilian embassy. Olga was able to see Morgan in prison only once before his death.

In La Cabaña, Morgan became acquainted with John Martino, another American jailed by Castro. “Men have been infiltrating into Cuba for two or three months now,” Morgan told Martino the night before he was executed. “They are working closely with the CIA. But Fidel Castro knows this also. Castro wants to eliminate anyone who can take power from him and that is why they are going to shoot me.” Morgan was right. On April 17, 1961, 1,300 anti-Castro Cubans, backed by the CIA, landed on the Cuban beaches in the disastrous Bay of Pigs invasion. By then, Morgan, who could have helped rally anti-Castro forces inside Cuba, had been executed.

Morgan’s trial took place on March 9, 1961, lasting six hours. In a final plea, Morgan told the court: “I have defended this revolution because I believed in it.” Morgan and Carreras were found guilty and sentenced to death.

The circumstances of Morgan’s execution were as vivid as his life itself. He was led out that night onto the grassy moat of La Cabaña, illuminated by spotlights. Seven men were lined up in a firing squad. At the execution wall, “el paradon”, Morgan’s hands were tied behind his back, and a voice shouted out that he must kneel. “I kneel for no man,” Morgan retorted. At that, two shots were fired into his kneecaps, forcing him to the ground. “See, we made you kneel,” the same voice shouted. A further volley of bullets finished him off, completely destroying his face. He was 32. His body was taken from the prison that night by Olga’s sister and buried in Colon cemetery beside that of Carreras, who had been shot five minutes before him. Some reports have suggested that Castro witnessed the execution, but news agencies at the time reported that he was at a party for Chinese communist officials.

Morgan’s death did not mean the end of Olga’s troubles. Captured by the secret police soon after his execution, she spent nearly 12 years in Cuban jails, in solitary confinement for much of the time. Olga doesn’t like talking about her experiences in prison, saying it was “terrible, terrible, terrible”. Her health never recovered and she still has migraines and damage to one eye from beatings.

But what she suffered on her release was worse: her two daughters, raised by her parents in Santa Clara, had been indoctrinated against her and their late father by their teachers, and considered them traitors. In despair, Olga went to Havana and lived for a while in a convent. Finally, she and most of her family, including her mother, daughters and some of her sisters, managed to leave Cuba in 1980 during the mass exodus of the Mariel boatlift. Olga moved to Toledo to be close to Morgan’s family. She married a welder called Jim Goodwin, who has only found out about his wife’s history in the last few years.

Now Olga says she will not rest until she has fulfilled her late husband’s final wishes and had his US citizenship restored. “I believe in freedom,” says Olga. “I believe in peace. But I never had peace. If I can do this for William, then I can be free inside too.”

From time to time, Olga cannot help rereading Morgan’s final letter to her, now yellowing and fading, written just hours before he was executed and smuggled out of prison: “Since the first time I saw you in the mountain, until the last time I saw you in prison, you have been my love, my happiness, my companion in life, and in my thoughts during my moment of death,” Morgan wrote. “When I found you, I found everything I can wish for in the world, and only death can separate us.”

In the end, perhaps William Morgan’s love for Olga was the only thing in his short and turbulent life that we, and she, can ever be sure about.

———————————————- Havana Journal Advertisements————————————————

Love Havana? Start your own Cuba website HavanaDomainsForSale.com

Find Cuban revolution on Amazon

  1. Follow up post #1 added on March 29, 2006 by Ralph

    Sorry,hey,but it’s often said that the second front in the so-called Cuba anti-batista guerrillas was a den of beefeater,who killed a lot of cattle belong to
    the farmers of Escambray,to eat and living large as a bogus guerrilla fighters.
    The deceived well Chapitas,the tyran at that time of Dominican Republic,“morgan y Menoyo buenas te la hicieron,le distes el dinero y las armas y se las cogieron” decía la pegajosa tonada del siempre grande Duetto
    de Pototo y Filomeno.I mean Menoyo and others commander from the second
    front have no legitimacy as guerrilla fighters,according on the popular view.


  2. Follow up post #2 added on June 06, 2006 by liuber w gonzalez

    that was my grandfather my grandmothers name is olga morgan thank u for this story about him my mother is there oldes child loretta morgan


  3. Follow up post #3 added on October 16, 2006 by armando

    I would like to contact Olga Goodwin Morgan to tell/write the story of how I met Mr. Morgan while he directed the cooperativa in pinar del rio.  It is a small, but fascinating, vignette she may wish to know about.  Please email me if possible.


  4. Follow up post #4 added on March 09, 2008 by alex gasrcia

    ralph: what do u think fidel and m-26-7 ate while in the mountains? ideas, air? no , they had what they found, cattle, pigs, goats whatever they found it’s a guerrilla man not a tea party and each one of those animals had an ownwer which sometimes was paid in bonds, money, or not paid at all and since the guerrilla fighters at Escambray were mostly middle class and had regular contact w/ the cities (escambray was a more developed area w/ decent infraestructure) ther’s a better chance of them paying for what they took than the guerrillas in Sierra Maestra mostly composed by poor peasants


  5. Follow up post #5 added on June 01, 2008 by Karuchy Rodriguez

    My father was a friend of William Morgan, and he told me that William was going to be my godfather had he not been killed a few months before my birth.  My father Jose Rodriguez Moefi aka: El Rubio was part of Morgans escolta and was later arrested before I was even born and sentenced to 30 yrs for being close to Morgan although they could never prove anything against him although he did help Morgan in his anti Castro fight.
      Thank you for the Story it was really a good feeling to know more about it.  I also remember my mother Luisa Rivero Estepa telling my a story about coloring Olga’s hair to avoid detection when she went into hiding.


  6. Follow up post #6 added on July 12, 2008 by Rose Margarita Capiro

    My father, the late Dr Orlando Capiro, was 39 years old at the time he met
    William Morgan and Olga Rodriguez while treating his wounded men in the Sierra
    Maestra in 1958. Later that year, when Morgan, his wife and his men came thru
    to Cienfuegos, they visited our home in Punta Gorda at the southernmost tip of
    Cienfuegos Bay, where they all came riding in jeeps and shooting their guns in the
    air , celebrating Batista’s exodus from Cuba on January 1, 1959. Of course in
    1961, years after Castro’s true Communist colors came out, I recall my father
    telling me the sad news of his friend William Morgan’s execution by Castro for
    attempting to overthrow Communism. This was a month before the invasion of
    the Bay of Pigs, which my father felt could have been a success had Morgan been
    alive and fighting from the shores of Cuba in conjunction with the boaters that
    came in from the Florida shores. Later that year, a lady that I thought I
    recognized , was dropped off at our house and our family unexpectedly took this
    lady on a ride towards Havana. We dropped her off in what seemed to be in the
    middle of nowhere in the vicinity of a Sulfur Processing Plant. I was 8 years old at
    the time and distinctly recall the smell of phosphorus. On our return home, my
    father explained to us how this was Olga in disguise with black dyed hair, who was
    fleeing for he life from Castro’s Communists. Later my father gave us the news
    that our mission was accomplished and Olga was in safe hands. It wasn’t until I
    read this article that I was aware of her 12 years imprisonment afterwards. Thank
    you for publishing this article to keep me informed of a part of my life that I will
    not soon forget.
    Rose Margarita Capiro


  7. Follow up post #7 added on September 29, 2008 by Brad O'Brien

    Morgan is a fascinating character. I wonder what memories his kids by earlier wives have of him?
    This man’s life begs for a film.
    Some have compared him to the American Taliban, John Walker Lindh. I don’t say the two are similar since Lindh fought against the US in a foreign army. Morgan never raised a weapon against any US forces.


  8. Follow up post #8 added on November 13, 2008 by shaun deeney

    I’m working on a script about William Morgan and the Second Front. I’d be glad to hear from anyone connected to the real events, particularly those with personal experience of the man and the mountains. Many thanks.


  9. Follow up post #9 added on November 13, 2008 by publisher with 3905 total posts

    Great keep us posted. Feel free to post a link to your website and/or contact information if you like. If you want, direct people to the email link below and I can rely information to you.



    Cuba consulting services

  10. Follow up post #10 added on November 13, 2008 by shaun deeney

    Thanks for that rapid response! I’d be delighted if you could relay any responses and I will check in regularly now I’ve found you. I have no website, but if your readers could use your e mail link, I will read and reply with great interest. All the best, Shaun.


  11. Follow up post #11 added on November 13, 2008 by Brad O'Brien

    The only other incident comparable to Morgan would be the men of the San Patricio Battalion in the Mexican war. They were recent Irish immigrants to the USA. They were mistreated and not allowed to go to Mass at the Mexican churches. In the face of abuse anti-Irish and anti-Catholic bigotry many of them deserted and later were adopted by the Mexican army.
    They fought fiercely. Many were captured. Their leader was a man named John Riley (aka Juan Reyley).
    Even so,  Morgan can’t be equated with them. He never served in an army at war with the USA.
    Did Castro ever permit MOrgan’s body to be disinterred and returned to his widow in Toledo??


  12. Follow up post #12 added on December 08, 2008 by FilthyRichmond.com

    awaken now!


  13. Follow up post #13 added on December 15, 2008 by George Cohen

    Desirous of more info on Morgan!  His story is a repeat of a William Morgan in 1826 who fought for his country but choosing the wrong way, misled in thinking that is was the right one.  He was a 30 year member of the Jewish Masonic Lodge.  When he discovered the truth about them, it cost him his life.  He disappeared, drowned in the Niagara River as it enters lake Ontario.  His murderers were the same “brothers” he shared the “cause” with.  These noble of people like these two William Morgans, must be recognized, the first one first and then the second one whom you write about above, who were deceived by Jewish Castro and Jewish Che Guevara, who ended up just using their gentile helpers to power and then disposing of them later.  It was very interesting to me that Guevara became the head of the bank of Cuba.  Just like they control all the bankrupcy scemes in New York today.  These Morgans must be recognized for having the guts to recognize their misled ways and risk their lives to correct them in order to help humanity, which was their desire from the beginning.  Both William Morgan’s must be recognized as two of the greatest patriots America has ever had.  But such is not the case.  They are looked at as dupes, drunks, womanizers, etc.  Just like their legendary ancestor Sir Henry Morgan.  And the true criminals go untouched.


  14. Follow up post #14 added on May 22, 2009 by James Bond

    The first poster (Ralph) es un idiota.  The second front were not comevacas (that’s just what the 26th of July people called them because they were jealous).  As far as we know the escambray fighters paid the peasants for food whenever they could.

    Fidel is an asshole. Although I appreciate his and Guevara’s fight against Batista, he ruined a perfectly good opportunity to move Cuba forward.  Even worse, he turned on those who helped him.  So if anyone is a traitor, it is Fidel.  Raul is not much better.  And I don’t believe Fidel would have won without the SFNE’s help.

    Despite what the communists, the miami gusanos, the FBI or CIA say, Morgan and Menoyo were freedom fighters.  They didn’t do it to get cushy jobs in a new government - they did it for the people, and they did it for freedom.

    Stripping Morgan of his american citizenship was a gross injustice (I question the legality of that - I don’t think the U.S. has the right to strip anyone of their citizenship, especially someone who was born (as opposed to naturalized) in the U.S.).  The U.S. did it simply for politics.  How childish of them.

    My heart goes out to Olga.  God bless you and your family, and I hope that one day your children learn to appreciate everything that you and your husband comandante morgan did for them.  Those few of us who know William’s story will not forget.

    Finally, to Comandantes Menoyo y Morgan, you both have my utmost respect.  Castro and his flunkies can’t hold a candle to you guys.


  15. Follow up post #15 added on February 09, 2011 by Leonardo

    Ralph, get your head out of there, if you pass gas you’ll blow your own brains out man!!!!

    Eloy Gutierrez Menoyo led a legendary fight against Batista, El Comandante Morgan was one of his trusted men, and Menoyo had many such men up in the Escambray mountains.  Many of the Escambray men, and women!, were members of the Movimiento Estudiantil that came out of La Universiad de la Habana, men like Jose Antonio Echevarria who was killed in the assault on the presidential palace.  These men were not under Fidel’s control and that is why Fidel casted them aside once he usurped powers.

    Fidel had a propaganda network in and outside Cuba that made many believe the only ones conducting the fight were the rebels in La Sierra Maestra and this was just another good example of how Fidel and his band of the “40 ladrones” lied, killed and cheated to fool Cubans into thinking that he is the only one, this still happens today of course and it has worked not only inside Cuba, many in Latin America and the US continue to be fooled and manipulated by Fidel’s lies; “los tontos utiles”

    An incident many do not know of, and is briefly touched on in the above article is the incident that occurred between el Che and Morgan.  When Che entered the Escambray mountains and suggested with his typical arrogance that everyone there was under his orders, el Comandante Morgan told him to take a hike and actually disarmed Che’s group and sent them packing.  Che never forgot about this. 

    The rebel leaders in the Escambray had engaged high ranking military officers in Batista’s army and agreed not to execute them if they had not taken part in acts that warrant the death penalty in exchange for a train load of arms, munitions and general war materiel.

    Che Guevara found out about the train and in order to thwart the Escambray’s rebel actions and make himself look more important that what he really was, he attacked the train during La Batalla de Santa Clara on December of 58 as it made its way from La Habana to the men of the Escambray, that is the infamous story of “El Tren Blindado” that made el Che look like the hero that he was not.

    History shows that none of the Escambray rebels, leadership or rank and file, ever held a position in the revolutionary government and when Fidel showed his true colors, the Escambray came alive again with actions and well trained and armed men against the new tyrant.  As a result, many men, women and children were killed right and left in the Escambray during the early 60s.

    There is plenty on the internet about how the Escambray was cleared of people in order to give Fidel the ability to conduct slash and burn operations without witnesses, interestingly enough, many of the people that participated in those operations became disillusioned, came out of Cuba and are now witnesses and provide testimony of the heroic struggle conducted by the Escambray rebels and their leaders, men like El Comandante William Morgan.

    Que Dios lo bendiga y lo guarde donde quiera que este.  Viva Cristo Rey!


Would you like to add more information?


Only members can add more information. Please register or log in

  • Advertise at Havana Journal Inc
Images of Cuba
El Floridita bar in Havana
Follow Havana Journal
SUBSCRIBE to our Cuba Watch newsletter
LIKE us on Facebook

FOLLOW us on Twitter

CONNECT with us on Linked In

Section Archive
Havana Journal, Inc. BBB Business Review



Member of the Association for the Study of the Cuban Economy